They [saw it].
--- closed it tightly waited for it looked at it started it up
They have a lot of [time].
--- money food hours friends
It was a difficult [period].
--- question time thing to do book
Is this the right [figure]?
--- answer place time number
We [are poor].
--- have no money feel happy are very interested do not like to work hard
Please use the [microphone].
--- machine for making food hot machine that makes sounds louder machine that makes things look bigger small telephone that can be carried around
His mark for that question was [nil].
--- very bad nothing very good in the middle
They went to the [pub].
--- place where people drink and talk place that looks after money large building with many shops building for swimming
Make a [circle].
--- rough picture space with nothing in it round shape large hole
Our dog often [digs].
--- solves problems with things creates a hole in the ground wants to sleep enters the water
He is a [soldier].
--- person in a business person who studies person who uses metal person in the army
It has been [restored].
--- said again given to a different person made like new again given a lower price
He's [a pro].
--- someone who is employed to find out important secrets a stupid person someone who writes for a newspaper someone who is paid for playing sport
They made a new [compound].
--- agreement thing made of two or more parts group of people forming a business guess based on past experience
The company [had a large deficit].
--- spent a lot more money than it earned went down a lot in value had a plan for its spending that used a lot of money had a lot of money stored in the bank
He broke the [strap].
--- promise top cover shallow dish for food strip of strong material
--- finished his course cried died worried
The house is [haunted].
--- full of decorations rented empty full of ghosts
I need one more [cube].
--- sharp thing used for joining things solid square block tall cup with no saucer piece of stiff paper folded in half
They have a [butler].
--- man servant machine for cutting up trees private teacher cool dark room under the house
We saw a [nun].
--- long thin creature that lives in the earth terrible accident woman following a strict religious life unexplained bright light in the sky
We bought [olives].
--- oily fruit scented flowers men's swimming clothes tools for digging
The boy [shuddered].
--- spoke with a low voice almost fell shook called out loudly
They raised the [threshold].
--- flag point or line where something changes roof inside a building cost of borrowing money
This book is about [demography].
--- the study of patterns of land use the study of the use of pictures to show facts about numbers the study of the movement of water the study of population
His [malign] influence is still felt.
--- good evil very important secret
He [strangled her].
--- killed her by pressing her throat gave her all the things she wanted took her away by force admired her greatly
The children were pretending to be [dinosaurs].
--- robbers who work at sea very small creatures with human form but with wings large creatures with wings that breathe fire animals that lived an extremely long time ago
He was holding [a jug].
--- a container for pouring liquids an informal discussion a soft cap a weapon that blows up
Do you like [crabs]?
--- very thin small cakes tight, hard collars sea creatures that always walk to one side large black insects that sing at night
They made a [quilt].
--- statement about who should get their property when they die firm agreement thick warm cover for a bed feather pen
Look at my [tummy].
--- fabric to cover the head stomach small soft animal finger used for gripping
[There was an eclipse].
--- A strong wind blew all day I heard something hit the water A large number of people were killed The sun was hidden by the moon
This was [excreted] recently.
--- pushed or sent out made clear discovered by a science experiment put on a list of illegal things
Many unwanted plants [are ubiquitous].
--- are difficult to get rid of have long, strong roots are found everywhere die away in the winter
This is [the marrow].
--- symbol that brings good luck to a team soft centre of a bone control for guiding a plane increase in salary
We saw the [cabaret].
--- painting covering a whole wall song and dance performance small crawling creature person who is half fish, half woman
He treated her [in a cavalier manner].
--- without care with good manners awkwardly as a brother would
The car [veered].
--- moved shakily changed course made a very loud noise slid without the wheels turning
This [yoghurt] is disgusting.
--- dark grey mud found at the bottom of rivers unhealthy, open sore thick, soured milk, often with sugar and flavouring large purple fruit with soft flesh
They saw [an octopus].
--- a large bird that hunts at night a ship that can go under water a machine that flies by means of turning blades a sea creature with eight legs
Now he has a [monologue].
--- single piece of glass to hold over his eye to help him to see long turn at talking without being interrupted position with all the power picture made by joining letters together in interesting ways
Please [be candid].
--- be careful show sympathy show fairness to both sides say what you really think
Aim the [nozzle] toward it.
--- space that light passes through in a camera dry patch of skin pipe attachment that forces water sharp part of a fork
He has [a psychosis].
--- an inability to move an oddly coloured patch of skin a body organ that processes sugar a mental illness
He got hurt in the [ruck].
--- region between the stomach and the top of the leg noisy street fight group of players gathered round the ball in some ball games race across a field of snow
He had a lot of [roubles].
--- very valuable red stones distant members of his family Russian money moral or other difficulties in the mind
These are [canonical examples].
--- examples which break the usual rules examples taken from a religious book regular and widely accepted examples examples discovered very recently
This [puree] is bright green.
--- fruit or vegetables in liquid form dress worn by women in India skin of a fruit very thin material for evening dresses
Put it in a [vial].
--- device which stores electricity country residence dramatic scene small glass bottle
They made [a counterclaim].
--- a demand response made by one side in a law case a request for a shop to take back things with faults an agreement between two companies to exchange work a decorative cover for a bed, which is always on top
We met in the [refectory].
--- room for eating office where legal papers can be signed room for several people to sleep in room with glass walls for growing plants
He practised the [trill].
--- repeated high musical sound type of stringed instrument way of throwing the ball dance step of turning round very fast on the toes
Just look at those [talons]!
--- high points of mountains sharp hooks on the feet of a hunting bird heavy metal coats to protect against weapons people who make fools of themselves without realizing it
We saw a lot of [plankton] here.
--- poisonous plants that spread very quickly very small plants or animals found in water trees producing hard wood grey soil that often causes land to slip
That was an excellent [soliloquy]!
--- song for six people short clever saying with a deep meaning entertainment using lights and music speech in the theatre by a character who is alone
They saw a [puma].
--- small house made of mud bricks tree from hot, dry countries large wild cat very strong wind that lifts anything in its path
It [augured well].
--- promised good things for the future agreed with what was expected had a colour that looked good with something else rang with a clear, beautiful sound
We saw the [emir].
--- bird with two long curved tail feathers woman who cares for other people's children in eastern countries Middle Eastern chief with power in his own land house made from blocks of ice
The story [is very didactic].
--- tries hard to teach something is very difficult to believe deals with exciting actions is written with unclear meaning
Look what we found in the [cranny]!
--- sale of unwanted objects narrow opening space for storing things under the roof of a house large wooden box
He stood at the [lectern].
--- desk made to hold a book at a good height for reading table or block used for church ceremonies place where you buy drinks very edge
This [azalea] is very pretty.
--- small tree with many flowers growing in groups light natural fabric long piece of material worn in India sea shell shaped like a fan
It is [a marsupial].
--- an animal with hard feet a plant that takes several years to grow a plant with flowers that turn to face the sun an animal with a pocket for babies
It was very [bawdy].
--- unpredictable innocent rushed indecent
He used a [crowbar].
--- heavy iron pole with a curved end false name sharp tool for making holes in leather light metal walking stick
Her dress was [spangled].
--- torn into thin strips covered with small bright decorations made with lots of folds of fabric ruined by touching something very hot
She [averred] that it was the truth.
--- refused to agree declared believed warned
It had [a retro look].
--- a very fashionable look the look of a piece of modern art the look of something which has been used a lot before the look of something from an earlier time
She is such [a rascal] sometimes.
--- an unbeliever a dedicated student a hard worker a bad girl
They used [tweezers].
--- small pieces of metal for holding papers together small pieces of string for closing wounds a tool with two blades for picking up or holding small objects strong tool for cutting plants
They have a [bidet].
--- low basin for washing the body after using the toilet large fierce brown dog small private swimming pool man to help in the house
Whose [sloop] is that?
--- warm hat light sailing boat left over food untidy work
They got [swingeing fines].
--- very large fines very small fines fines paid in small amounts at a time fines that vary depending on income
We met at the [cenotaph].
--- large and important church public square in the centre of a town memorial for people buried somewhere else underground train station
I was disappointed with the [denouement]
--- ending of a story which solves the mystery amount of money paid for a piece of work small place to live which is part of a bigger building official report of the results of a political meeting
She saw a [bittern].
--- large bottle for storing liquid small green grass snake false picture caused by hot air water bird with long legs and a very loud call
They have gone to [reconnoitre].
--- think again make an examination of a new place have a good time to mark a happy event complain formally
We will never forget her [magnanimity].
--- very offensive and unfriendly manners courage in times of trouble generosity completely sincere words
He has become [effete].
--- weak and soft too fond of strong drink unable to leave his bed extremely easy to annoy
They were [rollicking].
--- driving very fast staying away from school without being permitted to having fun in a noisy and spirited way sliding on snow using round boards
The cat left a [gobbet] behind.
--- strip of torn material footprint piece of solid waste from the body lump of food returned from the stomach
I hate the [rigmarole].
--- very fast and difficult dance for eight people funny character in the theatre form which must be completed each year for tax purposes long, pointless and complicated set of actions
The article was about [alimony].
--- feelings of bitterness and annoyance, expressed sharply money for the care of children, paid regularly after a divorce giving praise for excellent ideas a metal which breaks easily and is bluish white
He [rode roughshod].
--- travelled without good preparation made lots of mistakes did not consider other people's feelings did not care about his own comfort
They supply [copra].
--- a highly poisonous substance used to kill unwanted plants the dried meat from a large nut used to make oil an illegal substance which makes people feel good for a short time strong rope used on sailing ships
She lay on the [bier].
--- folding garden chair grass next to a river place where boats can be tied up board on which a dead body is carried
He was [in a torpid state].
--- undecided filled with very strong feelings confused and anxious slow and sleepy
She loves her [dachshund].
--- warm fur hat thick floor rug with special patterns small dog with short legs and a long back old musical instrument with twelve strings
What did you think of the [cadenza]?
--- cake topped with cream and fruit large box hanging from a wire that carries people up a mountain slow formal dance from Italy passage in a piece of music that shows the player's great skill
These thoughts [obtruded themselves].
--- got themselves lost or forgotten did not agree with each other got mixed up with each other pushed themselves forward in the mind
They saw the [panzers] getting nearer.
--- players in a marching band fighter planes large, slow windowless army cars policewomen
She read about [a cyborg].
--- an integrated human-machine system a musical instrument with forty strings a small, newly invented object a warm wind in winter
It is [a zygote].
--- an early phase of sexual reproduction a lot of bother over nothing a small animal found in southern Africa a gun used to launch rockets
The painting had a [sylvan] theme.
--- lost love wandering forest casual folk
She had many ideas that were [sagacious].
--- instinctively clever ridiculous and wild about abusing people and being abused rebellious and dividing
My theory is [spatiotemporal].
--- focussed on small details annoying to people objectionably modern oriented to time and space
Don't [play the casuist] with me!
--- focus only on self-pleasure act like a tough guy make judgments about my conduct of duty be stupid
I like [cyberpunk].
--- medicine that does not use drugs one variety of science fiction the art and science of eating a society ruled by technical experts
Let's not [pussyfoot around].
--- criticise unreasonably take care to avoid confrontation attack indirectly suddenly start
Since early times, people have built upwards, towards the stars, whenever and wherever possible. The most well-known examples of this from ancient times are the Tower of Babel and the Pharos of Alexandria, a famous lighthouse. In medieval times, the towers of churches were also built to great heights. In each of these examples, the nature of the materials used in construction imposed certain limitations on the height of the building. The brickwork, or masonry, had to be of a certain minimum thickness to support whatever was built on top of it. In general, the taller a building, the heavier it was. Therefore, however ingenious the architect's design, the building's height was limited by the strength and width of the walls of its lower stories. This remained a problem for many centuries.
It was not until the second half of the 19th century—when iron, and then steel, replaced brick as building materials—that the situation changed radically. At the same time, another obvious barrier to the construction of tall buildings was removed with the development of the safe lift, or elevator. No longer was it possible to dismiss the idea of building skyscrapers on the grounds that people would object to walking up a dozen or more flights of stairs to get to their home or office. Elisha Otis, the inventor of the elevator, is often credited with being the man who, more than anyone, made the skyscraper a viable proposition.
However, it was the work of Gustave Eiffel, an engineer and architect, which was to give the greatest boost to the actual construction of skyscrapers. He was one of Europe's most famous engineers, and had built the Eiffel Tower in Paris using iron and steel. In the early 1880s, Eiffel was given the task of building internal supports for the 45-meter-high Statue of Liberty that was to be erected at the entrance to New York Harbor. The chief material he used was steel, marking the first time that its use had been specified in the plans for any structure in New York other than a bridge. Eiffel's work on the Statue of Liberty and the Eiffel Tower convinced the Americans that steel, not brick, was the material of the future, and so the era of the skyscraper began.
Q1. The main purpose of the text is to describe –
developments that led to the construction of tall buildings
the advantages and disadvantages of the modern skyscraper
the work of the people responsible for inventing the skyscraper
some of the tallest buildings in the world, in the past and today
Q2. The Tower of Babel and the Pharos of Alexandria are presented in the text as examples of buildings –
constructed from special materials
that people admired long ago
that were as high as medieval church towers
from ancient times that were extremely tall
Q3. The purpose of the second paragraph is to –
discuss the methods used to build tall buildings in early times
describe the materials architects once used to support a building
explain why, in the past, the height of a building was limited
show that masonry was once used to solve architectural problems
Q4. According to the text, Elisha Otis was responsible for –
making the building of skyscrapers a realistic possibility
suggesting that steel would eventually replace brickwork
inventing the idea of the skyscraper
introducing new materials into the construction industry
Q5. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that before Eiffel's work on the Statue of Liberty,
steel had been –
a more popular building material in the United States than in Europe
used in New York in the building of bridges but not other structures
considered a material that could only be used in building tall structures
used in the construction of most of the skyscrapers in New York